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Gender Disparities & Intersectionality

Globally, significant gender disparities exist: two thirds of the total number of children out of school are girls. In Asia-Pacific Region girls are more likely to be out of school in primary age, while boys are more likely to not to continue education to secondary or upper secondary levels and hence are out of school. Over age primary attendance and not completing the primary or lower secondary school is also more common for boys.  


Different factors affect to boys or girls not to attend, continue, or complete education. Intersectionality is the key term that can help us to understand the gender disparities in education.. Intersectionality refers to the way in which different forms of discrimination and disadvantage combine and overlap. Characteristics such as gender, age, disability, ethnicity, geography and socio-economic status can intersect with each other, causing multiple levels of disadvantage and marginalization.

Early marriage is one of the causes for women not to get educated further.

“In Southeast Asia, an estimated 10-24% of women aged 20-24 years old are married by the time they turn 18 (Plan International Australia, 2013). In Cambodia, 18% of women are married by the time they turn 18 (UNICEF, 2014). In Lao PDR, one in five of women aged 15-19 are either married, 10 Situation Analysis of Out-of-School Children in Nine Southeast Asian Countries divorced or widowed, relative to just 6% of young men. In Timor-Leste, where girls can legally be married at 15 and boys at 18, almost 19% of girls are married by the time they are 19 (Plan International Australia, 2013). In Indonesia, around 22% of women aged 20-24 are married by age 18. The issue came into sharp focus in Indonesia when a recent Constitutional Court decision upheld the existing marriage law that permits girls to be married at 16, whereas boys can only be married at age 19 by law (UNICEF Indonesia, 2015).”

Covid pandemic has made the situation worse, causing a risk of 24 million students to drop out from education: lot of effects will be only discovered after the pandemic and at the moment we don’t have most recent data from different countries. Covid has caused and causes bigger risks for girls and women, since majority of the housework, care taking and healthcare (paid or unpaid) is taken care by girls and women and when being at home, they are also more prone to experience domestic violence and sexual abuse. While exiting the pandemic, we should ensure girls and women return to school.

Herewith are the best resources to start working on these disparities, for more fair and equal education! Are we missing something ? , give us a shout!

Putting gender front and center in education with TIGER

#HerEducationOurFuture: innovation and technology for gender equality; the latest facts on gender equality in education

Women in teaching: understanding the gender dimension

Improving Women’s Mental Health During a Pandemic

El Salvador is the first country to access the GPE Girls’ Education Accelerator

GENTLE wraps up: time to value interests over stereotypes

Girls Targeted When Schools Attacked, Impacting Lives, Education

Mind The Learning Gap

How Can Education Help A Girl Make Her Dreams Come True?

How The Gender Gap In STEM Might Get Its Start In Elementary School

Fear Against Violence Hinders Girls’ Education

To Ensure A Gender-Transformative Approach In The Early Years, India Must Engage Parents And Teachers

Barriers To STEM Education For Rural Girls ∼A missing link to innovation for a better Bangladesh~

What Keeps Girls Home From School?

These Girls Were Powerless, Living On The Edge Of Society. But One School Is Turning Them Into Heroes, Feminists And Resisters

Boys Outnumber Girls In Higher Education Enrolment

How Do We Get More Girls Into STEM? Build Confidence (and Robots)

Apple And ‘Girls Who Code’ Non-Profit Team Up To Implement ‘Everyone Can Code’ Curriculum

African Countries Urged To Embrace Inclusive Digital Policies To Benefit Out-of-School Girls

The Wrong Way To Educate Girls

Key Resources

From access to empowerment: operational tools to advance gender equality in and through education

Education inequalities-tool

STEM education for girls and women: breaking barriers and exploring gender inequality in Asia

Situation analysis of out of school children in nine south east Asian countries

Levels of Education

Vocational Education
Secondary Education
Primary Education
Non-Formal Education
Higher Education
Early Childhood and Pre-Primary Education