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Socio-Economic Disparities & Location

Numerous studies unanimously agree that socio-economic disparities significantly affect academic skills and education achievements of children. Children from lower socio-economic status households are about twice as likely as those from households with higher status to have learning or behavioral problems. 


Even in high-income countries, relative poverty also affects the performance of students. Chmielewski assessed the socioeconomic achievement gap in 100 countries via 30 international large-scale assessments between 1964 – 2015, totalling 5.8 million students. She found that the gap increased in most of the countries.

Furthermore, social reproduction expands the disparities and exclusion across generations.

Exclusion in education from socio-economic disparities is the result of poverty, parental education and literacy, location of residence, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, conflicts, crises, disasters, displacement, and others. Education policies are one of the most effective instruments to solve the issues. Also, cooperation from all sectors is required.

This section displays the situations of the disparities, globally and locally, possible and tangible solutions to the issues, and the ongoing attempts of the stakeholders to reach the solutions.

UNESCO’s new regional studies reveal the impact of climate change on the right to education

There’s an Education Gap Between Rural and Urban Communities. Can Technology Bridge It?

Average difference in PISA scores between 15-year-old disadvantaged and advantaged students

I want to protect my parents through my education

Michelle Obama on the Importance of Girls’ Education: “We Can’t Let These Girls Be Forgotten”

Key Resources

Learn more about the socio-economic disparities and education

APA Fact Sheet about education and socioeconomic status

Levels of Education

Vocational Education
Secondary Education
Primary Education
Non-Formal Education
Higher Education
Early Childhood and Pre-Primary Education