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Migrants, Refugee & Stateless People

As the current world is full of conflicts and chaos, millions of people become migrants, refugees, and stateless people. They often face the issue of access and quality of education and are ones who most likely to be left behind.Explore the definitions of migrant, refugee, and stateless person.


The IOM World Migration Report 2020 estimated that there were around 281 million international migrants in the world in 2020, 3.6 % of the global population in 2020. UNESCO reported that low- and middle-income countries hosted 89% of all refugees in 2017, with 52% of the refugees are under the age of 18.

Immigrant students in high-income countries are nearly twice as likely as natives to repeat a grade. Migrants and refugees around the world struggle to perceive themselves as belonging to the host countries. There are still barriers and discrimination in law, administration, and languages. Employers are reluctant to hire them. Intercultural and language programmes are still lacking. In many countries, the fear of deportation keeps children out of school.

Education is the best way for refugees to become full members of their host countries and contribute to the society.

Attending schools intellectually and socially benefits migrant workers and their children. States and should provide access to education for migrants, refugees, and stateless people, as education is a human right. Even though, implementation is still an issue.

This section tells the experiences of migrant, refugees, internally displaced people (IDP), and stateless people, from global statistics to individual stories, and how education is important for them and has changed their lives.

UNESCO’s new regional studies reveal the impact of climate change on the right to education

Using virtual reality to help teachers better support refugee students

Strengthening Ministry of Education engagement and leadership in rapid education in emergency response

Leveraging innovative technology in literacy and education programmes for refugees, migrants and internally displaced persons

Nine out of ten displaced children struggle to have food, water, schooling

6 Fields to Study to Help Refugees

Global Partnerships Are Needed to Strengthen Education for 80 Million Refugees

Equity in education for/ with refugees and migrants – towards a solidarity promoting interculturalism

Global Framework for Refugee Education


Keeping Promises: The time to keep our promises to refugee children is now

Ten Steps to Equity in Education

Coronavirus crisis reveals the Arab world’s great e-learning divide

I want to protect my parents through my education

The Investment Case for Education and Equity

Policy Brief: Ten Steps to Equity in Education

How A Generation Of Syrian Children In Lebanon Were Robbed Of Their Education

Key Resources

UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report 2019 with the theme of migration, displacement & education

More about migration in the IOM World Migration Report 2020

Read another report from the specialist in the UNHCR Global Report 2020

Levels of Education

Vocational Education
Secondary Education
Primary Education
Non-Formal Education
Higher Education
Early Childhood and Pre-Primary Education